Specialisation of Cells

In our Biology class, we are continuing to learn about cells .We particularly saw these the shape, and how the shape is adapted to its function of the following 7 cells:


Ciliated Cell


Has a layer of tiny hairs (cilia) which can move and push mucus from one place to another. The mucus can transport trapped dust and microbes when it is pushed by the cilia.

Root Hair Cells

root hair

Absorbs minerals and water from the soil water. This cell has a long extension (a root hair) which increases the surface area of absorption of materials.

Xylem Vessels

xylem vessel

Transports water and supports the plant. The cell has no cytoplasm (so water can pass freely), no end wall (so that many cells can form a continuous tube) and walls strengthend with a waterproof substance called lignin.

Palisade Mesophyll Cells

palisade mesophyll

It is found beneath the epidermis of a leaf and contains a lot of chloroplasts as its function is to carry out photosynthesis.



Nerve Cells


Conducts nerve impluses. The cell has a long fibre called an axon along which impulses a travel, a shatty sheath which gives electrical insulation and a many-branched ending which can connect with many other cells.

Red Blood Cells

red blood

Transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues where aerobic respiration occurs. The cytoplasm is filled with the pigment haemoglobin, which carries oxygen. The cells have no nucleus, leaving more space for haemoglobin, and they are very flexible (they can be forced through even the narrowest of blood vessels).

Sperm and Egg Cells

sperm and egg

egg and sperm

Sperm Cell: It has a long tale called flagellum which allows the cell to swim through the female reproduction system. It’s neck is full of mitochondria to give energy so that the flagellum can move.

Egg Cell: it has a jelly-like layer around it and outside the membrane for protection and it is full of cytoplasm.